If you ask five people to explain what an editor does, you’d get fairly succinct answers. However, if you ask those same people to tell you the difference between copy, substantive, and developmental editing, you’re liable to get five different answers. Add proofreading to the mix and things get even more confusing.

I offer three levels of editing: Proofreading, Copy Editing, and Substantive Editing. I have experience editing a wide variety of nonfiction manuscripts. As an artist myself, editing creative manuscripts is intuitive.


Proofreading is just that, reading the proof of your soon to be published writing. I will proofread a manuscript that is ready to publish but needs one final read through. When proofreading, I will address any formatting and style issues and make sure there are no spelling and punctuation errors.

Copy Editing

When copy editing, I will meticulously read through your manuscript line by line. I will address spelling, grammar, punctuation, and syntax errors. I will ensure that your writing is uniform throughout and work with you to address any ambiguities. I will make sure your manuscript is consistent, cohesive, and complete.

Substantive Editing

Substantive editing addresses the organization, presentation, and pleasurability of your writing. When editing creative writing on a substantive level, I will address the atmosphere, emotion, and tone of your writing. With a technical or legal document, substantive editing will address the style, overall completeness, and any ambiguities. While blatant errors will be pointed out, substantive editing is not as meticulous as copy editing.


Whether an oral history, medical records, or legal in nature, I will transcribe your audio into writing.


Please contact me with any questions about the levels of editing and the services I offer.